November 24, 2019
The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and Her Legacy by Allison Francis
“The female sex has been left defenseless for a long time now, like an orchard without a wall and bereft of a champion to take up arms in order to protect it…”Source: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
– “The Book of the City of Ladies” by Christine de Pizan, 1405
Feminism in the 15th century? This is considered a rare concept during the medieval period. This was an era of serfs/lords, arranged marriages, and a time when women were viewed as little more than property.
This period lacked champions to stand up to the patriarchy that dominated society. Well, such a champion did exist, though many may not have been familiar with her. She is considered France’s (even Europe’s) first professional female writer and was popular internationally. Her name was Christine de Pizan.
Pizan is considered one of the first feminist figures as, through her work, she directly addresses many of the injustices her sex had been subjected to. She calls out the injustice of their treatment in a very progressive manner.
This is evident in two of her most famous books, “The Book of the City of Ladies” and “The Book of the Three Virtues.” Pizan’s version of feminism in the 15th century is still not like it is today (as she was still a woman of her time), but it was extremely radical for the period she lived through.
Pizan went through much hardship to find that she had talent as a writer and to realize her purpose. Her early life began as many other young women’s lives did in the late medieval era.
She was born in Venice around 1364. Her father, Tommaso di Benevenuto da Pizzano was an educated man who studied medicine and astrology at the University of Bologna. When Pizan was four years old her father was offered a position at the court of Charles V in Paris, and the family moved out of Italy into a completely new country.
Tommaso changed his name to Thomas de Pizan. Due to her father’s position at court, Pizan grew up with an admiration for Charles V. He was generous to her family and provided good financial compensation as well as access to the royal libraries and the fashionable French court.
Portrait of Charles V of FranceSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
Pizan’s father, being an educated man himself, held the progressive view that women should be educated the same as men. She grew up surrounded by her fathers’ books and the royal library. He encouraged her lifelong love of learning and wanted Pizan to have a formal education, but her mother held a different opinion.
Her mother had the typical viewpoint of the era: young women should be taught practical household tasks, such a spinning, and avoid books and topics that belonged in the men’s sphere. How else was she supposed to be a proper wife for her future husband? It seems her mother’s influence won on this account and her formal education was brief. By 1379, she was married to a young royal secretary named Etienne de Castel. Pizan was about fifteen years old.
Despite marrying so young (though it was common during her era) and participating in an arranged marriage, the couple’s life seemed to be very happy. In later years, Pizan would write affectionately about this period in her life. Her husband had a prestigious career, had close access to the King, and made a good salary. They had two surviving children together, Jean and Marie.
Everything changed when Charles V passed away. This led to a destructive power struggle between the members of the French royal family. Charles V did leave behind a son (the future Charles VI, “The Mad King”) who was only eleven years old. This meant the regency was fought over by Charles V’s remaining brothers, Philip the Duke of Burgundy, Louis the Duke of Anjou, and John the Duke of Berry.
The constant infighting would split the government. All three of these brothers would have an influence on Pizan’s future career.
Portrait of Christine de Pizan in her studySource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
Due to the change in power, Pizan’s father received a significant pay cut and began to age quickly. Her father passed away by 1387. In 1390, Pian’s husband died suddenly due to an unexpected disease.
This left Pizan – at age twenty-five – with two young children, her mother, and a niece that she had to care for. Due to her sex and lack of education in financial matters, she was unable to collect the money she was due from her husband’s estate.
Yet, Pizan did not give up and became involved in suits in four different Parisian courts to obtain the money she believed was owed to her. She wrote about this later in “The Book of the Body Politic.”
Pizan implored rulers to review their treatment of widows, women, and orphans regarding financial matters. She advised those in power to stop taking advantage of people in need just for one’s own personal gain. She also gives advice to other widows in a similar situation (years after her own experience) when she writes “The Book of the Three Virtues.” She warns of people who were:
“In the habit of honoring you while your husband was alive are no longer very friendly and have little regard for you. The second evil that afflicts you is the various suits and many requests to do with debts or disputes over land or pensions. The third is the abusive language of people who in the nature of things are inclined to attack you, so that you can hardly do anything without people finding something to criticize.”Excerpt from “The Book of Three Virtues” by Christine de Pizan
Clearly, Pizan felt all these things first hand. Yet, she advises that giving oneself up to the pit of loss and grief is not the way to take charge of one’s family, household, and children.
A widowed woman must begin a new way of life, Pizan said. She needs to safeguard her rights and make sure her children have what they are due.
Pizan didn’t give into her sorrow or give up after being cheated out of much of what she was owed. She needed to care for those who depended on her and provide a stable income. As a result, she began to write.
Philip, Duke of Burgundy, one of Christine’s de Pizan’s patronsSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
She began writing for the court of the Louis of Orleans. Each of the three royal uncles had their own courts which had become the centers of culture in France (the royal court was in complete disarray). They held poetry competitions, poetry debates, and had writers recite ballads.
All of these contests would have attracted Pizan to the court of Louis. She would use these opportunities to make a name for herself and form a career.
Pizan used poetry to manage her frustrations and the grief she was experiencing as a young widow.
“Alone am I, alone I wish to be,“Seulette suy et seulette vueil estre” by Christine de Pizan
Alone my gentle love has left me,
Alone am I, without friend or master,
Alone am I, in sorrow and in anger,
Alone am I, ill at ease, in languor,
Alone am I, more lost than anyone,
Alone am I, left without at lover…”
She also wrote popular love poetry, which earned her favor at the court. Over the years, she studied and practice different styles (such as the rondeau and the ballade).
Eventually, Pizan started to create more complex poetry collections. A collection would involve a series of longer poems that were related by a common theme.
One of her most famous collection started as “Cupids Letter,” but would eventually factor larger in the “Debate of the Romance of the Rose” in 1402. This letter brought Pizan out of the exclusive court circles and to a wider audience.
“Yet, malicious slanderers who debase women in this way still maintain that all women have been, are now, and always will be false, asserting that they have never been capable of loyalty…At every turn, women are put in the wrong: whatever wrong has been done is attributed to them. This is a damnable lie, and one can easily see that the contrary is true.”Christine de Pizan
In this quote, Pizan points out the problem with how men have treated women. He considers all women to be natural liars and untrustworthy.
There’s more to women than the opinion of the Church, which controlled much of medieval society. It was the common belief that since Eve created the first “original sin” all women were responsible for this burden.
Women, as a sex, were viewed as inherently sinful, the weaker, lustful, and Satan’s tool to stir men down the wrong path. Since the church was the center of medieval society, this idea naturally shaped the secular opinion of women as well.
This contributed to the reason why women were so heavily controlled and held to impossible standards. This letter also brings to attention Pizan’s opinion on the trend of “courtly love” (see my previous post on the subject: The Tradition of Courtly Love). She has a negative opinion of the fad as she believed women had nothing to gain from the practice but further criticism and accusations.
Men could use this practice as “evidence” of the sinful nature of women. These debates brought Pizan’s writing talent to the forefront and made her known internationally. Pizan even sent the collection of letters from the debate to Queen Isabeau of France.
Christine de Pizan presenting her works to Queen IsabeauSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
It’s not surprising that others from high circles began to pay attention to her and patronize her works. During a time when the current King, Charles VI, was suffering from mental illness, the Uncles were attempting to establish dominance in the French court.
Pizan was commissioned by the Duke of Burgundy to write a full biography of his deceased brother, Charles V. This was to promote the Valois family, establish their power (despite the weakness of the current King), and make the Duke of Burgundy look good, as well. Pizan had to portray Charles V as an ideal and wise king. It was up to her to preserve his memory.
Pizan highlighted the importance of Charles V’s education and how it contributed to his success. The choice of Pizan as an author is interesting because this would have been her first time writing a full-scale book. It was also written in prose and not the poetic style she was used to.
This shows how she had successfully broken the barrier and became noticed in a male-dominated career path. Pizan even said herself that she had to take on a man’s role in order to change her life and make her children’s life better.
The Duke of Burgundy passed away in the middle of the creation of the biography, so Pizan had to present the work to his brother, the Duke of Berry. The Duke of Berry eventually accepted it and soon became a long-term patron of Pizan.
John, Duke of Berry, another of Christine de Pizan’s patronsSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
Pizan would bounce around to different patrons. After, the Duke of Berry, she would perform services for John the Fearless (the Duke of Burgundy’s son) and even some of the royal household. She wrote “The Book of the Body Politic” with the dauphin in mind and dedicated the work to him.
The book consists of three parts and details the proper education for princes, knights/noblemen, and, lastly, the commoners. This work was written during the Hundred Year’s War.
This was a chaotic time riddled with conflict and rivalry among the French royal family, a ruling King who was suffering mental illness, they were losing the war against the English, and overall greed and ambition by those in power.
The people of France suffered from a lack of strong leadership and were burdened with high wartime taxes. Pizan wrote this book on political theory to create an effective society during a time of difficulty and chaos. She wanted to highlight that society needed to take on these challenges as a unified body.
If everyone did their part, she held there would be more stability. If those at the top could put aside their personal gain and focus more on the common good, the world would not be as chaotic. It’s an interesting political perspective from a woman of the 15th century.
Portrait of Christine de Pizan reading her workSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
Pizan is most well known for her feminist writings. This included her two books: “The Book of the City of Ladies” and “The Book of the Three Virtues.” These works build off what Pizan started in the Debate of “The Romance of the Rose”.
“The Book of the City of Ladies” begins with a frustrated Pizan who is tired of reading works by men which wrongfully slander women. “Oh God, why wasn’t I born a male so that my every desire would be to serve you, to do right in all things, and to be as perfect a creature as man claims to be?” she asks herself in the book.
That night three ladies appear to her: Reason, Rectitude, and Justice. They task Pizan with the mission of creating a walled city where she will invite all honorable women and defend them against the misogyny of their society.
Throughout the book, Pizan highlights the great women of history as evidence that the generalizations the male writers make are not true. These included the legendary Amazons and many strong, notable women from the ancient world.
These examples proved that women could be strong, contribute to the written word, take part in judicial affairs, become inventors and could benefit from a good education. Women needed a chance to prove themselves and to show society they’re more than the male-dominated opinions.
Pizan encourages women to take the opportunity to use education to better themselves: “He [God] chose to endow women’s minds with the capacity not simply to learn and grasp all kinds of knowledge but also to invent new ones by themselves,” Pizan writes in “The Book Of the City of Ladies.” She expresses that women are the more generous ones and sacrifice much for the men in their lives:
“They [the men who slander women] have no grounds for criticizing women: it’s not just that every man who is born of woman receives so much from her, but also that there is truly no end to the great gifts which she has so generously showered on him. Those clerks who slander women…really should shut their mouths once and for all. They and all those who subscribe to their views should bow their heads in shame for having dared to come out with such things…”Excerpt from “The Book of the City of Ladies” by Christine de Pizan
Pizan emphasized that women need to take lives in their own hands, contribute to the greater good of society, and to take control over their own lives.
After Pizan’s experiences and struggles in the early years of her widowhood, she questioned why “women are allowed neither to present a case at trial, nor bear witness, nor pass sentence…?” She encourages women to learn the law and to be knowledgeable of their rights.
Pizan would’ve benefited greatly herself if she had this knowledge when she fought for her dues after the death of her husband.
City of LadiesSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
In the “The Book of the Three Virtues,” Pizan instructs women from all classes (royalty to commoner) on how to improve themselves to become a worthy lady of her city and how to defend themselves against those who wish would insult them.
Both books would go down in history as her most popular works. Though Pizan’s writings aren’t quite as progressive as feminism is in the modern world, it was still very radical for her time. She dedicated the works to Marguerite of Nevers (the daughter of the Duke of Burgundy and recently married to the heir of France) to help instruct her.
Pizan passed away, it is believed, in the 1430s. She had continued to write poetry until she was sixty-five (a good old age in the medieval era). She successfully supported her children with her writings and lived to see three grandchildren. Yet, the legacy she left behind was even greater.
Pizan had become Europe’s first female professional writer and created many internationally known works. Her works would continue to be circulated in the centuries that followed. Elizabeth I had a copy of the “The Book of the City of Ladies” in her personal library.
If any is familiar with the work of art, “The Dinner Party” by artist Judy Chicago, Pizan holds a place setting at this table.
Chicago created this work of art to bring attention to great women who had been omitted out of history and it’s considered a great feminist piece. There are 39 place settings and each highlights a specific woman.
The Dinner Party by Judy Chicago. Located in the Brooklyn MuseumSource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
Pizan does deserve a place at that table. She was the one who finally stood up and brought attention to the ridiculous way medieval society was portraying women. She proved it to be wrong. Pizan wasn’t afraid to call out those who slandered others, despite all she had to lose.
Close up on Christine de Pizan’s table setting in The Dinner PartySource: The Creation of a City of Ladies: Christine de Pizan and her Legacy | History Navigator
- “The Book of the City of Ladies” by Christine de Pizan, edited/translated by Rosalind Brown-Grant
- “The Treasure of the City of Ladies (aka Book of the Three Virtues)” by Christine de Pizan, edited/translated by Sarah Lawson
- “Book of the Body Politic” by Christine de Pizan, edited/translated by Kate Langdon Forhan
- “La Querelle De La Rose: Letters and Documents” by Joseph L. Baird and John R. Kane
- “Christine de Pizan: Her Life and Works” by Charity Cannon Willard
- “Christine de Pizan: Her Works” on A Medieval Woman’s Companion
- “Christine de Pisan” on Brooklyn Museum
- “Christine de Pisan” on West Virginia University
Head on over to Allison Francis’ blogs to read more about history.
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